the case of religious belief.

1. William James argues that in a case in which the truth of a particular belief depends on personal action and desire, having faith in the truth of that belief even in the absence of confirming evidence

a. shows bad judgment and lack of a scientific attitude.
b. is something to be avoided by anyone purporting to escape dupery and false beliefs.
c. is a lawful and possibly an indispensable practice in life.
d. is childish and shows a reticence to accept true responsibility on the part of the rational knowledge-seeker.
e. may be acceptable, but only in the case of religious belief.