the absence of good.

1. Which of the following is used as a defense in response to the problem of evil?

  a. Evil is only the absence of good.
  b. Evil is caused by humans through their free choice.
  c. A world without evil would be ill-suited to the purpose of moral and spiritual development.
  d. The existence of evil is necessary for the existence of good; one cannot exist without the other.
  e. All of the above.